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Lace is a delicate fabric made of yarn or thread in an open weblike pattern, made by machine or by hand. Originally linen, silk, gold, or silver threads were used. Now lace is often made with cotton thread, although linen and silk threads are still available.
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Chantilly - Bobbin lace - Crocheted lace - Chemical
Chantilly lace is a handmade bobbin lace named after the city of Chantilly, France, in a tradition dating from the 17th century, though the most famous are silk laces introduced in the 18th century. Though called Chantilly lace, most of the lace bearing this name was actually made in Bayeux in France and Geraardsbergen, now in Belgium.
Chantilly lace is known for its fine ground, outlined pattern, and abundant detail. The pattern is outlined in cordonnet, a flat untwisted strand. The best Chantilly laces were made of silk, and were generally black,which made them suitable for mourning wear. White Chantilly lace was also made, both in linen and silk, though most Chantilly laces were made of silk. The black silk Chantilly lace became especially popular, and there was a large market for it in Spain and the Americas. Chantilly and the Spanish laces (such as Blonde lace) were the most popular black laces. Little white Chantilly was ever made. Another notable thing about Chantilly lace is the use of a half-and-whole stitch as a fill to achieve the effect of light and shadow in the pattern,which was generally of flowers. The background, or réseau, was in the form of a six pointed star, and was made of the same thread as the pattern, unlike the otherwise similar Blonde lace.The lace was produced in strips approximately four inches wide, and then joined with a stitch that left no visible seam.
Chantilly lace remained popular in the 19th century, when every fashionable lady had a black or white Chantilly shawl, made in Brussels or Ghent
Chemical Lace (sometimes referred to as Schiffli Lace) is a form of machine-made lace. This method of lace-making is done by embroidering a pattern on a sacrificial fabric that has been chemically treated so as to disintegrate after the pattern has been created. Schiffli machines came into use in the late 19th century. Before that embroidery machines called Swiss Hand machine were used to make chemical lace as well as embroideries.
This embroidery is nowadays typically done on a multi-head or multi-needle Schiffli machine or loom that has a very large, continuous and overlapping embroidery field. The lace pattern is designed such that the embroidery thread creates an interlocking series of threads that will, in essence, become a "stand alone" piece of lace.
After the embroidery is completed the embroidered fabric is immersed in a solution that will not harm the embroidery thread but completely dissolves the sacrificial fabric leaving just the lace.
Utilizing these large machines and this technique a single piece of lace could be, using today's state-of-the-art machines, over 60" wide by 15yards long. In practice, this system is used to produce many smaller items with one setup.
The original composition of the disintegrating "bath" was not very friendly to the environment and has all but ceased to exist in developed countries. However, the practice is still being used to create laces in third world countries. Since the original development of chemical lace, other methods have been developed beyond the chemical washing method described above. This includes the use of base fabrics that are water soluble or that disintegrate under heat. These methods are generally too expensive or impractical for large-scale production. These are typically used by smaller embroidery facilities specializing in targeted markets, home-based businesses, or hobbyists.
Chemical lace can be distinguished from needle lace by a slight fuzziness in the threads.